What is Root, Types, Characteristics and Function of Root

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What is Root, Types, Characteristics and Function of Root

The root grows towards gravity, in search of water, away from light (negatively phototropic), underground by spreading into various branches formed from the radicle. Roots absorb water and various types of mineral salts from the soil.

The root is the part of the plant that develops from the radicle at the time of seed germination and grows in the opposite direction of light (negatively phototropic) but towards water and land.

Roots absorb water and various types of mineral salts from the soil.

The first root that develops from the radicle is called the primary root, while all the branches are called secondary roots. Unicellular root hairs are found in the roots.

Roots, roots, leaves, etc. are not found. Roots are negative photosensitive and positive gravity.

Types of Roots

Generally there are two types of roots-

  1. Tap Root
  2. Adventitious Root

Also read:

Tap Root

A taproot is a root in which the radicle develops to form a primary root, which is thicker than other branches and goes deeper. Many branches emerge from it, which are called secondary root.

The branches emerging from secondary roots are called tertiary root.
The primary root and its branches thus formed are called tap root system.

Such roots are found in dicot plants and grow very deep in the ground and keep the plant firmly erect. This root is found in plants like gram, pea, carrot, radish, mustard, mango, neem etc.

Types of Tap Root

  1. Fusiform

Roots of this type are thick in the middle and thin at the edges like-radish.

  1. Napiform

These roots are thick and bloated at the top and thin at the bottom like turnip, beet.

  1. Conical

Roots of this type are thick towards the base and thin towards the bottom respectively. Like carrots.

  1. Respiratory root (Pneumatophores (Pneumatophores) root) –

In plants like Rhizophora, Sundari, etc., which grow in marshy places, special types of roots emerge from the underground main roots, which are called pneumatophores. They are peg-shaped, which come out in the air above. There are many small holes on them which are called Pneumathodes.

Adventitious root or Fibrous root system

In some plants, radicle growth stops for some time after germination, and roots develop in the form of fibers from the base of the radicle or the lower stems of the stem, they are called fibrous roots. The root cluster formed in this way is called the adventitious root system.

Due to the growth of the adventitious root radicle, it emerges in the root branches, the basal parts of the stems and leaves. It is often found in monocot plants such as paddy, wheat, maize, jowar, millet, sugarcane etc.

Atypical roots are also found in some dicot plants like banyan, betel, amarbel etc. These roots do not go deep into the ground and extend only to the upper surface.

Different types of adventitious roots

The adventitious roots are modified in many ways to store food, to provide mechanical support to plants or to perform other specialized functions.

Difference between Tap root and Adventitious roots

मूसला जड़ (Tap root)अपस्थानिक जड़
मूसला जड़ की प्राथमिक जड़ समाप्त नहीं होती तथा यह क्रमश: पतली होती जाती है।अपस्थानिक जड़ों की प्राथमिक जड़ बनने के तुरन्त बाद समाप्त हो जाती है और प्ररोह के अन्तिम भाग से अनेक रेशेदार जड़ें निकलती हैं।
यह भूमि के अन्दर गहराई तक जाती है ।यह भूमि की ऊपरी सतह पर ही स्थित होती है ।
यह बीज के मूलांकुर से पैदा होती है।यह पौधे के प्ररोह भाग (वायवीय भाग) से पैदा होती है।
इसकी प्राथमिक जड़ से अनेक शाखाएँ निकलती हैं। उदाहरण- मटर, चना, अरहर इत्यादि की जड़ें।इसकी प्राथमिक जड़ विलुप्त हो जाती हैं। उदाहरण-गेहूँ, जौ, धान, मक्का इत्यादि की जड़ें ।

Characteristics of root

Root is the descending part of plant axis, which develops from the radicle.

The root always grows in the ground away from the light.

Due to living in the soil, the color of the roots is white or beige.

Nodes and internodes are not found on the roots like the stems.

There are no leaves and flower buds on the roots. Therefore, these husbands do not bear flowers and fruits.

Roots are generally positive geotropic and negative phototropic.

The root end is protected by the root cap.

There are unicellular hairs on the root.

Functions of Roots

Roots absorb water and mineral salts with the help of root hairs.

(The hydrocephalus lacks root hairs) In Pistia and Lemna plants, the root pocket is found instead of the root pocket.

Root hairs and soft parts of the roots absorb water and dissolved mineral salts.

It keeps the plants stable in the ground.

Some roots store food inside themselves, under unfavorable conditions these stored food materials are used by plants.

difference between monocot and dicot root

Monocot root

There is no secondary growth in it.

In this the pith is fully developed.

From the beginning only Partha creates the roots.

The number of their convection pools is generally more than six.

It lacks cambium. ,

Dicot root

It has secondary growth.

In this the pith is less developed.

The inflorescence forms both the lateral roots and the secondary meristem.

The number of their convection pools is usually less than six.

It contains cambium.


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